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Interferometric nanoimmunosensor for label-free and real-time monitoring of Irgarol 1051 in seawater

Chocarro-Ruiz, B., Herranz, S., Fernández Gavela, A., Sanchís, J., Farré, M., Marco, M.P., Lechuga, L.M.

Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 117, pp. 47-52. 2018

 An interferometric nanobiosensor for the specific and label-free detection of the pollutant Irgarol 1051 directly in seawater has been settled. Due to the low molecular weight of Irgarol pollutant and its expected low concentration in seawater, the sensor is based on a competitive inhibition immunoassay. Parameters as surface biofunctionalization, concentration of the selective antibody and regeneration conditions have been carefully evaluated. The optimized immunosensor shows a limit of detection of only 3?ng/L, well below the 16?ng/L set by the EU as the maximum allowable concentration in seawater. It can properly operate during 30 assay-regeneration cycles using the same sensor biosurface and with a time-to-result of only 20?min for each cycle. Moreover, the interferometric nanosensor is able to directly detect low concentrations of Irgarol 1051 in seawater without requiring sample pre-treatments and without showing any background signal due to sea matrix effect.


Dietary and microbial oxazoles induce intestinal inflammation by modulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor responses.

Shankar S. Iyer, Thomas Gensollen, Amit Gandhi, Sungwhan F. Oh, Joanna F. Neves, Frederic Collin, Richard Lavin, Carme Serra, Jonathan Glickman, Punyanganie S. A. de Silva, R. Balfour Sartor, Gurdyal Besra, Russell Hauser, , Anthony Maxwell, Amadeu Llebaria, Richard S. Blumberg

Cell (2018) 173(5) p1123–1134.e11

 Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease, while epidemiological studies have emphasized that pathogenesis likely involves host interactions with environmental elements whose source and structure need to be defined. Here, we identify a class of compounds derived from dietary, microbial, and industrial sources that are characterized by the presence of a five-membered oxazole ring and induce CD1d-dependent intestinal inflammation. We observe that minimal oxazole structures modulate natural killer T cell-dependent inflammation by regulating lipid antigen presentation by CD1d on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). CD1d-restricted production of interleukin 10 by IECs is limited through activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in response to oxazole induction of tryptophan metabolites. As such, the depletion of the AhR in the intestinal epithelium abrogates oxazole-induced inflammation. In summary, we identify environmentally derived oxazoles as triggers of CD1d-dependent intestinal inflammatory responses that occur via activation of the AhR in the intestinal epithelium.


Dyestuffs and formaldehyde content in split leather treated with formaldehyde resins

Marsal, A., Cuadros, S., Cuadros, R.M., Font, J., Manich, A.M.

 Dyes and Pigments, 158, pp. 50-59. 2018

 Formaldehyde resins are present in textile, leather and wood industries. Due to the harmful character of formaldehyde, different alternatives have been found to exclude or reduce its content on processed goods. However, the effect of dyestuffs on the formaldehyde content of goods containing formaldehyde-synthesized resins has not been studied up to date. The aim of this work is to check if the presence of free amino groups in the structure of dyestuffs exerts an influence on the formaldehyde content on leathers treated with formaldehyde-synthesized resins. Six dyes, belonging to three different families (acid dyes, direct dyes and basic dyes), have been taken as examples to evaluate how their structures affect the reaction with formaldehyde present in leather. The variation of the formaldehyde content in dyed leathers with respect to control samples (treated with resin only) and its evolution with time have been also considered. It has been found that the ability of dyes in reducing the formaldehyde content in leather depends on the amount of amino groups amenable to reaction with formaldehyde. Those amino groups that in their vicinity have other functionalities, with which to form relatively stable structures, have a reduced reactivity with formaldehyde.  The reduction ability of dyes also depends on the formaldehyde content in leather. The lower the formaldehyde content is in the leather, the higher this reduction ability. Acid Black 234 dye caused a formaldehyde content reduction of approximately 84% in leathers treated with melamine-formaldehyde resin of low formaldehyde content in the analysis carried out after 90 days of leather processing whereas the reduction was approximately 20% when the resin was of high formaldehyde content. The highest reduction ability of basic dyes corresponded to the dye that has the greatest amount of amino residues amenable to reaction with formaldehyde (Basic Orange 2). Basic Orange 2 dye exhibited higher reduction ability (90% of reduction in leathers treated with resin of high formaldehyde content after 90 days of leather processing) than the Acid Black 234 dye (approximately 20%), both containing similar amount of free amino residues. Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed that the Basic Orange 2 dye is mainly a single major component, while the Acid Black dye 234 is a mixture of components that can have a reduced reactivity with formaldehyde. Further experiments are required to investigate if the surface leather dyeing (Basic Orange 2 dye) have a higher influence on formaldehyde content reduction than the through-dyeing (Acid Black 234 dye).


Solvent-Extracted Wool Wax: Thermotropic Properties and Skin Efficacy

Barba Albanell, C., Carrer, V., Marti, M., Iglesias, J., Iglesias, J., Coderch, L.

 Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, pp. 198-205. 2018

Background/Aims: Wool wax is a soft, yellow, waxy substance that is secreted by the sebaceous glands of sheep. The purpose of wool wax is to waterproof and protect the wool. Chemically, wool wax is a complex mixture of esters, fatty acids, and alcohols. Wool waxes with different prop­erties can be obtained by following different extraction methodologies. Methods: Two differently extracted wool waxes are compared in this study. Their effectiveness in mimicking the properties of skin lipids is evaluated. In addition, the lipid compositions and thermotropic behaviours of the 2 differently extracted wool waxes were evaluated. Results: The solvent-extracted wool wax was found to have a significantly higher polar lipid content than that of the water-extracted wool wax. This increase in the polar character of the solvent-extracted wool wax was also demonstrated by increased values of transition and degradation temperatures in the differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses, respectively. In addition, solvent-extracted wool wax demonstrated the ability to reinforce stratum corneum lipids, which led to improved skin barrier function. Conclusions: The suitability of the solvent-extracted wool wax for application in the preparation of cosmetics and dermatological products was demonstrated.


Deciphering the Underlying Metabolomic and Lipidomic Patterns Linked to Thermal Acclimation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Puig-Castellví, F., Bedia, C., Alfonso, I., Piña, B., Tauler, R.

J. Proteome Res., 2018, 17 (6), pp 2034–2044


 Temperature is one of the most critical parameters for yeast growth, and it has deep consequences in many industrial processes where yeast is involved. Nevertheless, the metabolic changes required to accommodate yeast cells at high or low temperatures are still poorly understood. In this work, the ultimate responses of these induced transcriptomic effects have been examined using metabolomics-derived strategies. The yeast metabolome and lipidome have been characterized by 1D proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry at four temperatures, corresponding to low, optimal, high, and extreme thermal conditions. The underlying pathways that drive the acclimation response of yeast to these nonoptimal temperatures were evaluated using multivariate curve resolution–alternating least-squares. The analysis revealed three different thermal profiles (cold, optimal, and high temperature), which include changes in the lipid composition, secondary metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism, and we propose that they reflect the acclimation strategy of yeast cells to low and high temperatures. The data suggest that yeast adjusts membrane fluidity by changing the relative proportions of the different lipid families (acylglycerides, phospholipids, and ceramides, among others) rather than modifying the average length and unsaturation levels of the corresponding fatty acids.


Direct activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by PF-06409577 inhibits flavivirus infection through modification of host cell lipid metabolism

De Oya, N.J., Blázquez, A.-B., Casas, J., Saiz, J.-C., Martín-Acebes, M.A.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018

 Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are a group of RNA viruses that constitute global threats for human and animal health. Replication of these pathogens is strictly dependent on cellular lipid metabolism. We have evaluated the effect of the pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of lipid metabolism, on the infection of three medically relevant flaviviruses, namely, West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and dengue virus (DENV). WNV is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis, affecting humans and horses worldwide. ZIKV has caused a recent pandemic associated with birth defects (microcephaly), reproductive disorders, and severe neurological complications (Guillain-Barré syndrome). DENV is the etiological agent of the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease, which can induce a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue. Our results showed, for the first time, that activation of AMPK using the specific small molecule activator PF-06409577 reduced WNV, ZIKV, and DENV infection. This antiviral effect was associated with an impairment of viral replication due to the modulation of host cell lipid metabolism exerted by the compound. These results support that the pharmacological activation of AMPK, which currently constitutes an important pharmacological target for human diseases, could also provide a feasible approach for broad-spectrum host-directed antiviral discovery.


Synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-triglycyl derivative

Pérez-Rentero, S., Eritja, R., Häring, M., Saldías, C., Díaz, D.D.

Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 8 (5), art. no. 671, 2018

 In this work, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly properties of a new tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)–triglycyl low-molecular-weight (LMW) gelator. Supramolecular organogels were obtained in various solvents via a heating–cooling cycle. Critical gelation concentrations (CGC) (range ˜ 5–50 g/L) and thermal gel-to-sol transition temperatures (Tgel) (range ˜ 36–51 °C) were determined for each gel. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy suggested that the gelator is also aggregated in its solid state via a similar hydrogen-bonding pattern. The fibrillar microstructure and viscoelastic properties of selected gels were demonstrated by means of field-emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and rheological measurements. As expected, exposure of a model xerogel to I2 vapor caused the oxidation of the TTF unit as confirmed by UV-vis-NIR analysis. However, FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the oxidation was accompanied with concurrent alteration of the hydrogen-bonded network.


The role of SeDeM for characterizing the active substance and polyvinyilpyrrolidone eliminating metastable forms in an oral lyophilizate—A preformulation study

Borges, P.F., García-Montoya, E., Pérez-Lozano, P., Jo, E., Miñarro, M., Manich, A., Suñé-Negre, J.M.

 PLoS ONE, 13 (4), art. no. e0196049, 2018

 A preformulation study of an oral lyophilisate with cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ) as active ingredient, mannitol and PVP K30 as bulking agents is presented. CTZ shown a humidity content of 0.150% and a spontaneous hygroscopicity of 0.200% (both determined by SeDeM diagram), demonstrating an adequate stability behavior in solid form. A design of experiments (DoE) performed with both mannitol and PVP K30, followed by a simple factorial design (32) has determined the optimum combination of excipients and CTZ, and showed that a higher proportion of PVP K30 was able to prevent metastable forms generated by mannitol.


Ovarian function modulates the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the mouse cerebral cortex

Herrera, J.L., Ordoñez-Gutierrez, L., Fabrias, G., Casas, J., Morales, A., Hernandez, G., Acosta, N.G., Rodriguez, C., Prieto-Valiente, L., Garcia-Segura, L.M., Alonso, R., Wandosell, F.G.

 Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 12, art. no. 103, 2018

 Different dietary ratios of n−6/n−3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) may alter brain lipid profile, neural activity, and brain cognitive function. To determine whether ovarian hormones influence the effect of diet on the brain, ovariectomized and sham-operated mice continuously treated with placebo or estradiol were fed for 3 months with diets containing low or high n−6/n−3 LC-PUFA ratios. The fatty acid (FA) profile and expression of key neuronal proteins were analyzed in the cerebral cortex, with intact female mice on standard diet serving as internal controls of brain lipidome composition. Diets containing different concentrations of LC-PUFAs greatly modified total FAs, sphingolipids, and gangliosides in the cerebral cortex. Some of these changes were dependent on ovarian hormones, as they were not detected in ovariectomized animals, and in the case of complex lipids, the effect of ovariectomy was partially or totally reversed by continuous administration of estradiol. However, even though differential dietary LC-PUFA content modified the expression of neuronal proteins such as synapsin and its phosphorylation level, PSD-95, amyloid precursor protein (APP), or glial proteins such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an effect also dependent on the presence of the ovary, chronic estradiol treatment was unable to revert the dietary effects on brain cortex synaptic proteins. These results suggest that, in addition to stable estradiol levels, other ovarian hormones such as progesterone and/or cyclic ovarian secretory activity could play a physiological role in the modulation of dietary LC-PUFAs on the cerebral cortex, which may have clinical implications for post-menopausal women on diets enriched with different proportions of n−3 and n−6 LC-PUFAs.

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